Russia was the top exporter in 2022–2023 with 46 million tonnes and may be responsible for a quarter of the world’s wheat trade this year, according to US Department of Agriculture.
Only a dozen countries supply the global market with the essential commodity needed to create bread, the most important foodstuffs in the world, and Russia dominates the grain export market.
The major wheat-producing and importing countries are represented by the International Grain Council (IGC), which anticipates a 2.4% decline in world wheat production to 784 million tonnes in the 2023–2024 growing season.
There are only a dozen nations that produce enough wheat to export the valuable grain.
With 138 million tonnes produced in 2022–2023, China will be the top producer by a wide margin. But in order to feed its 1.4 billion people and maintain a sizable reserve, it can only import a little over 10 million tonnes annually.
Another significant producer of wheat is India. In previous years, it had started to export excess produce, but last year, limits were put in place because of the drought affecting the nation.
The other main producers are France, Australia, the United States, and Russia. Sebastien Poncelet, an expert at Agritel, says that following a record harvest of 92 to 100 million tonnes in 2022–2023, depending on the sources, Russia is on track for its second-best harvest ever at about 90 million tonnes.
According to the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), it was the top exporter in 2022–2023 with 46 million tonnes and may be responsible for a quarter of the world’s wheat trade this year.
The next largest exporters after Russia are Canada, Australia, and the United States, whose exports are anticipated to drop to less than 20 million tonnes, the lowest level in 50 years.
Following them are France and Ukraine, which according to the USDA are expected to export 10 million tonnes and were previously the third-largest exporter prior to the Russian military operation.
Turkey has been the largest consumer of Russian wheat since 2018, followed by Egypt, according to Sebastien Abis, an associate researcher at the French Institute of International and Strategic Relations think tank.
While 40% of Russian wheat exporters came from those two nations, Syria and Iran are also significant consumers of Russian wheat.
However, according to Abis, Russian wheat is increasingly being purchased worldwide, particularly in Western Europe, northern Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa.