By: Jowad Masoomi, Iranian researcher and writer
Israel and the Republic of Baku, with different motivations and to project their internal crises, seek to create a “tension-causing and crisis-causing coalition” in the Caucasus and the region. Despite Tehran’s comprehensive support for the territorial integrity and independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan for thirty years, the government of Baku has become a contractor that has leased the country’s facilities to Zionists, Takfiris and terrorists against the will of its people. The political and media blackmails of the Republic of Baku will not change Iran’s red lines regarding the immutability of international borders and the protection of the territorial integrity of countries, because these are part of the UN Charter and the inviolable principles of international law. However, Iran’s policy towards the Republic of Azerbaijan during the last three decades is a principled policy in accordance with good neighborliness and the rules of international law, and Iran considers the interests of the people of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia as its interests.
The opponents and terrorist groups that were previously in Syria and Iraq are the enemies of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Russia, because with the strategic cooperation of Iran and Russia, the country of Syria and Iraq was freed from terrorists like ISIS. The presence of these opponents and terrorist groups is currently increasing in the territory of Azerbaijan, which threatens the people of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Because the presence of these opponents will cause instability and tension in the region. What is certain is that the Islamic Republic of Iran and Russia have successful field experience in the fight against terrorism based on the school of Martyr Soleimani, and on the other hand, in terms of the number and geographical scope of the recent conflict in Baku and Yerevan, it is much smaller than the fight against ISIS in the countries of Syria and it is Iraq. But the recent issue is not just a territorial conflict and has other goals, including Israel’s proxy war.
If we study the historical agreements, we will realize that the strategic relations between Iran and Russia (former Soviet Union) are not only based on the recent strategic agreements and the historical past can also be examined and studied in the agreements of the Qajar period with the Soviet Union. Among the relations of the land agreement between Iran and Russia (former Soviet Union) in 1921 on the borders, which is known as the border agreement. This legal agreement was concluded and signed in 1921 AD (March 1292) with several chapters with Iranian and Soviet representatives. In the fifth chapter of this legal agreement of the parties, Iran and Russia (former Soviet Union), any group or organization with any title aims to fight against Iran and Russia (Former Soviet Union), these two countries (Iran and Russia) are with each other in various fields such as military, they will unite with each other and fight against them. Also, in the second paragraph of this chapter, it is emphasized to all the countries that want to act against Iran and Russia. In other words, any country that threatens the borders and border security of the parties, Iran and Russia can prevent the actions of that country based on this agreement. The issue of the historical agreement between Iran and Russia (former Soviet Union) is also related to geopolitical issues that any third country wants to create a security and military threat, Iran and Russia will intervene as a strategic alliance with the cooperation of other aligned countries. In a sense, Iran’s strategic relations with Russia are like the NATO organization, if any government attacks a NATO member country, NATO must defend it.
Historical study shows that extra-regional actors have tried to exploit conflicts. For example, in the history of England, with the 1919 agreement, which was never implemented, it has tried to be active for its own interests. Currently, the active presence of extra-regional actors with various interests, including economic, political and security, can be seen, who seek to disrupt peace and stability in the region. It seems that the main players in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict are British colonists, Israel is on the decline and America is on the decline. Due to their chaotic situation in the world, these actors have disrupted the agreement of November 9, 2020 regarding the cease-fire of Karabakh with the approach of the geometry of the new order.
The importance of the issue
The field reality of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and Baku’s goals in geopolitical change in Iran’s borders will have heavy consequences for the honorable government of Azerbaijan. This is because the Islamic Republic of Iran has always been friendly to its neighbors with a very ancient common history and culture. This cooperation was not only in the statements and talks of Iran’s high-ranking officials. Moreover, in the agreement of the Caspian Sea Legal Convention, respect for territorial integrity, good neighborliness, peace, and empathy are emphasized.
In the meantime, the media activities of the parties (Baku and Tehran) in the past caused the tension to escalate, but the policy and strategy of the country of Iran based on the orders of the leader of the Islamic Republic has always been on good neighborliness. The Islamic Republic of Iran and Azerbaijan have had very good relations during Mr. Heydar Aliyev’s term, and media misunderstandings are a solvable issue. On the other hand, the signs of resolving the dispute of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the recent statements of their political officials are significant and positive.
Based on the measures and directives of the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the affairs of his neighbors in his conversations and meetings in the media, his emphasis is on strategic communication with his neighbors in all dimensions, such as cultural, economic, military and respect for their territorial integrity. The issue of geopolitical changes in Iran’s borders is a legal issue that no country accepts, and in view of the strategic agreements between Iran and Russia from the past, as well as the very successful and valuable experience of Iran and Russia in the fight against terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq, in case of any move by the honorable government of Baku to cut Iran’s land border with Armenia will be a very serious response from Iran and Russia. Among the topics that caused the strategic patience of Iran and Russia, attention is paid to the dear and respected people of Azerbaijan and Armenia because of the Iranian history, which prevents conflict in this region because of its rich history and Iranian culture, as the heart of the land.
The author’s advice in these lines is to respect the honorable government of Baku for the completeness of the land of Armenia and to solve the recent conflict through diplomatic methods with the provision of logical and rational solutions. Because cutting the border between Iran and Armenia is of concern to many countries, including India, China and Russia, and if the political and media blackmail by the government of Baku continues, it will create serious problems for them, which is not the Islamic Republic. Because the policy of Iran in the affairs of its neighbors is respect for territorial integrity and friendship with very strategic relations in various fields, including energy, and the way to achieve the goals of the honorable government is cooperation with Iran, not conflict and military conflict. The relationship between Iran and the Republic of Baku is a mother-child, genetic and blood relationship, and the people of Iran and Azerbaijan have been friends with each other, and even the people of Azerbaijan, Iran and the people of the Republic of Azerbaijan, are of the same race, and in today’s world, when everyone is moving towards peace, these relationships are bridged by actors. Especially America, Israel and their allies are aiming for stability and peace in the West Asian region.
Baku is trying to strengthen its relations with America through Israel. The recent positive vote of Baku in the Parliamentary Assembly of the European Council based on the establishment of a court against the President of Russia and Belarus is one of the examples of this matter. In a bigger picture, the plan of America and Israel is to lead Iran to start a war with provocative actions. America’s plan to bring Saudi Arabia to the field failed. Bu they brought Azerbaijan into the field as another option. After the start of the first move by Iran to respond to all the provocative actions, the international community, considering Iran’s internal conditions, accuses the government of Iran of starting a war and disrupting international peace and stability, and they can make Iran enter the path of no return. An important strategic point is that Iran is the key to the initiation of future events in Asia. If the internal and external conditions of Iran become more complicated, the profits of Russia, China and India will be seriously damaged at the same time, and it will take years to restore them. The normalization of relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia has reduced the political and military tension in the region as much as possible. But Israel and America continue to escalate tensions around Iran, so far Iran’s authorities have shown restraint and strategic tolerance in the face of provocative actions and complex programs, but this does not mean that this approach will continue in the coming months.
Suggestions and recommendations
The approach and way of solving Iran is under discussion for the reason that the war is bitter in the region that is known by the heart of the land through non-government. Therefore, the principles of strategic peace are proposed.
Firstly, all the territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan that were disposed of by Armenia should be freed and returned to Azerbaijan.
Secondly, international borders should also be observed. That is, all parties should not trespass and cross the international borders of the countries, and the international borders should be protected.
Thirdly, Armenian security must be preserved.
Fourthly, in the context of the corridor Zangzor. Iran will welcome any plan and idea without geopolitical and border changes with Armenia, and Tehran has special solutions for peace, stability and regional cooperation, especially with its neighbors Azerbaijan and Armenia.
In this principle, attention is paid to non-violation of international borders and maintaining the security of geopolitical borders, which means respecting the territorial integrity of countries and the need to ensure the security of Armenians in these lands, as necessary to end the conflict and ensure the security of the region. By using these principles and paying attention to internationally accepted standards and principles, it is possible to propose a plan to resolve the differences between Azerbaijan and Armenia and to achieve a comprehensive agreement without the involvement of extraterritorial powers.
Dr. Jowad Masoomi, Iranian writer and researcher
This article is exclusively for Mideast Discourse.